Curriculum Planning



A.    Definition of Curriculum Planning
Curriculum planning is a complex social process that requires different types and levels of decision-making. The Needs to meet to coordinate the process requires the use of models to present key aspects of the presentation despite  should be simplified various aspects and may neglect other aspects.[1]  We must note another crucial theme which underpins all of these issues – a series of fundamental questions about human knowledge and the implications of these for the ways in which we set about planning the school curriculum. The content of what we expect children to learn during their schooling is clearly a crucial element in curriculum planning, whatever view we take of education, curriculum or, indeed, knowledge itself. There are important questions to be addresed, however, concerning how the knowledge content of a curriculum relates to its other dimensions. Indeed, an important first step in any study of curriculum is the recognition that other dimensions exist. For it has too often been assumed, again notably by the architects of the National Curriculum for England and Wales, that to plan a curriculum is merely to outline the knowledge content to be ‘delivered’ and imbibed.[2]

B.     Planning functions
a.    Serve as guidelines for curriculum planning or management tool, which contains instructions about the type and source of the necessary participants, delivery media, the bullet performed actions, the source of the cost, manpower, necessary tools, control and evaluation system, the role of these elements to achieve the tension goals management of the organization.
b.    curriculum planning serves as the driving wheel to the organization and administration to create change in society consistent with the objectives of the organization. Curriculum planning that big mature contribution of decision-making by the leadership, and therefore need the leadership and  knowledge that already has.
c.    curriculum planning is to function as a motivation to carry out the education system so as to achieve maximum results.
C.      Principles of curriculum planning [3]
a.      Objektives
Planning the curriculum has a clear purpose and specific  based on  national education goals, the real data input  as needed.
b.      integration
The curriculum planning  combines the type and source of all disciplines, schools and community cohesion, internal cohesion and coherence in the delivery process.
c.       Benefit
Planning and presenting curriculum provides knowledge and skills as an input for decisions and actions, as well as strategic reference sebagau useful in providing education.

d.      Efficiency and effectiveness
Curriculum planning is based on the principle of efficiency of funds, manpower, and time and effective in achieving educational goals and outcomes.
e.       Suitability
The curriculum planning  is appropriated to the target learners, the ability of educational personnel, the ability of personnel, science and technology advances, and changes or the development of society.
f.       Balance
Curriculum planning with the balance between types of fields of study, available resources, as well as the capabilities and programs to be conducted.
g.      ease
The curriculum gives planning convenience for the users who need guidance, in the form of study materials, and methods to implement the learning process.
h.      continuous
curriculum planning  is arranged by the stages and types of education.
i.        Standardization
standardized curriculum planning with appropriate levels and types of education units from the central, province, and regency.
j.        Quality
Curriculum planning includes the quality, so that helped improve the quality of the learning process and the quality of graduates as a whole.

Tyler’s four questions
It has been suggested (Tyler, 1949) that the curriculum has to be seen as consisting of four elements, and curriculum planning, therefore, as having four dimensions: objectives, content or subject matter, methods or procedures and evaluation. In short, the claim is that we must distinguish in our curriculum planning what we are hoping to achieve, the ground we are planning to cover in order to achieve it, the kinds of activity and methods that we consider likely to be most effective in helping us towards our goals and the devices we will use to evaluate what we have done. Tyler’s own way of putting this point is to suggest that there are ‘four fundamental questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction’ (1949:i)[4]. These he lists as:
1.    What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2.    What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
3.    How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4.    How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
This analysis, then, if taken just as it stands, would give us a very simple model for curriculum planning, a linear model which requires us to specify our objectives, to plan the content and the methods which will lead us towards them and, finally, to endeavour to measure the extent of our success.

D.    Curriculum Planning Model
a.    Rational planning model Tylel deductive or rational, logical emphasis in curriculum and program design starts from the specifications goals (goals and objectives) but tend to ignore the problems within the task. This model is suitable for a centralized educational system that focuses on the central planning system, where the curriculum is considered as a tool to develop or include purposes in the social economy.
b.    Interactive models of rational (the rational-interactive model) view of rationality as the demands of an agreement between the different opinions, which do not follow the logical sequence. Often this model is called situational models, assuming rationality emphasis on flexible curriculum that does not respond satisfactorily and initiatives at the school level or local level.
c.    The Diciplines Model, this planning  focuses on teachers, they themselves are planning a curriculum base on systematic consideration of the relevance of philosophical knowledge, (knowledge of issues of significance), sociology (social trend of argument-argument), psychology (to tell you about the order-sequence of learning materials as suggested by Lawton 1973).
d.   Models without a plan (non planning model), is a model based on teachers considering in class for decision making, just efforts except to formulate spesific goals, opinion formality, intelectual analysis.

E.     Nature of the Curriculum Planning[5]
a.    Strategic, because it is a very important instrument for achieving national education goals.
b.    comprehensiveness, covering all aspects of life and livehoods.
 integrative, which integrates a broad plan, include the development dimension of the quality and quantity.
c.    Be realistic, based on the real needs of learners and the needs of the community.
d.   Humanistic nature, focusing on developing human resources, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
e.    Futuralistic nature, refer to plan far ahead in advanced society.
Is an integral part of supporting the systemic management education.
f.     Curriculum planning refers to the development of competence in accordance with national standards.
g.    Deversification  to serve diverse learners.
h.    Is decentralized, as developed by the region in accordance with the conditions and potential areas.

[1] Oemar, Hamalik, Manajemen Pengembangan Kurikulum ( Bandung : PT Rosda Karya, 2008 ), 152.
[2] A.V.Kelly, The Curriculum Theory and Practice (London : Sage Publications, 2004), 14.
[3] Oemar, Hamalik, Manajemen Pengembangan Kurikulum(Bandung : PT Rosda Karya, 2008 ), 155.
[4] A.V.Kelly, The Curriculum Theory and Practice (London : Sage Publications, 2004), 15.
[5] Oemar, Hamalik, Manajemen Pengembangan Kurikulum (Bandung : PT Rosda Karya, 2008), 154.

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